Green Revolution

  • Is started with following objectives
    • Solve the problem of Hunger
      • 1850- Industrial revolution used India as raw material.
      • Commercialization of Agriculture – Indigo System – more area under commercial crop
      • 1960, we are not cultivating food grain due to commercial crop
      • Death & Birth Rate is high- Poluation is stable
      • Medical revolution, Death rate is decrease
      • After 1921,
      • 1960- Decade of Population Outburst.
      • Due to population more demand of food grain
      • People start dying out of hunger
      • 1st 5 yr plan agriculture was considered.
        • Target of 1st yr is reached by agriculture.
      • 2nd 5 Yr to plan, use prefer industrialization.
        • Importing a lot of manufactured good.
        • Iron & Steel for infra development.
        • Agriculture was neglected
        • We meet the target
      • 3rd 5 Yr to Plan,
        • Indian facing acute shortage of food grain.
        • Lot of person died due to hunger
        • Food grants from USA at two poles India followed to NAM.
          • PS4-80: USA gave food grants, Humalating conditions,
          • Rooten food grains sent to India.
          • Another Indian leader came with begging bowl.
          • USA required Millitary Bases, Pakistan gaves.
          • Wheat and unwanted grass of weed were given to us which we use broadcasting method.
          • Weeds also weeds consume for nutrients and productivity never produce
    • Make India self Sufficient in Food Grain Production.
      • Introducing Chemical Fertilizer,
        • In west, people want to abolish Chemicals in agricultures.
        • New social movement in western world.
          • Clean Environment to live
          • Food without chemical
          • TO raise the living standard.
          • Food First, environment then.
        • Old social movement started in Indl revolution
          • Poor Condition of workers
          • Exploit of women & Children
          • Demanding certain rites.
          • Worker want better life standard.
    • Develop forward and backward linkages.
    • Increase agriculture production and productivity.
      • 1961, Intensive agriculture development programme
        • High yielding warriety
        • MN Swaminathan (Father of GN) helped by Norman bulldore
    • Agriculture modernization
      • At that time
        • Use of chemical fertilizer
        • Use of Machines
        • Use of HYV
        • Use of Tube wells
      • Today
        • Conservation of Ground water
        • Conservation of Bio diversity
        • Sustainable agriculture
  • Strategy :
    • With limited resources and urgency to deliver Green revolution as a program was not taken up at PAN India level. Few area were chosen Punjab, Haryana, Western UP, Coastal Adhra, and Kaveri Basin were taken up as the destination region of Green Revolution while eastern- India with fertile soil and better rainfall was by-passed. It was part of deliberate imbalance[P1]  based strategy where it anticipated, that once the arid Green Revolution is developed benefit will also spread to adjoining regions.
      • Idea was to trickle down the development to other under developed states.
      • Fragmented farm hold in Bihar but it is high in Punjab. (Punjab have larger farm)
        • Large famer can purchase and use machines in large farms.
        • In Bihar 97% of Bihar are small and marginal farmer.
      • Damp avoid flood, Produce electricity, Canal send the water to farmer. Canal irrigation was started.
        • Power not available in Bihar as tube well run on diesel.
        • Power available in Punjab because of Himachal Pardesh, Canal Process.
Particular 1970-71 2017-18
Food Grain production 82 mn/tn 284 mn tn
Rice 35 mn/tn 115 mn tn
Wheat 11 mn/tn 100 mn tn
Per Capita availability of Cereal 391 gram/person/day 495 gm/psn/day
Uses of fertilizer 13.5 kg/h 135 kg/h
Pulses 12 mn/tn 24 mn/t 14 mn/tn in 2007-08-  
  • Evaluation
    • The food grain production in country has increased from 82mn tones in 1970-71 to more than 280 mn/tones in 2017-18
    • The Production of rice and wheat increases from 35 mn tones and 11 mn tones to 115 mn tones and 100 mn tones respectively in the time period mentioned above
    • The usage of chemical fertilizer increased and new fertilizer plant were setup at Panipat, Bhatinda, Nangal etc. Regional rural banks came up which provided cheap and easy credit to farmer. Moreover market reforms were initiated in most states.
      • Neptha is useful in Urea and it help in availability.
      • Irrigation support given to farmer as Tubewell and electricity.   
      • Forward linkages helps Punjab to contribute more in Production %.
    • Although the GR brought at no. of benefits many problem that agriculture is facing today can also be traced to faulty practice taken up during Gr.
      • Cultivation of water intensive crop in semi aired area has led to ground water depletion and it is considered as reason for water crisis in India.
        • Agriculture consuming 80% of fresh water.
        • Water intensive crops were grown in semi-aired regions.
        • Govinda variety reap in 3 months.
        • Law passed due to double use of Paddy that is water intensive crop is irrigated.
        • Ground water is over exploited in Pujab and Ground water table is falling 70-110 in diff regions.
        • Ground water development is 172 % in Punjab which means pumping 172 litres and 100 go down to ground water.
        • Cultivating area of Rice and wheat and some other crop is reduced and they are intensed.
      • Over-irrigation has harmed the soil health where the soil is turning saline over irrigation is also the one of the reason behind Ground water contamination besides excess use of chemicals.
        • Soil Salinization means high amount of salt content.
          • Dead Sea where salinity is very high.
          • Evaporation evaporate the water only and salt remain on the ground. Less precipitation led to salinity.
          • Saline soil led to salinity of ground water.
          • Root absorb from osmosis, soil salinity leds water to roots to soil.
          • It further led to declining the productivity
          • Bhabha Atomic centre reported that 16/22 of Punjab has beyond the permissible unit of Uranium.
          • Due to 2 reasons
            • Geogenic- high water level dilute the level of Uranium and radium and concentration is low. Led to cancer to persons.
            • Anthropogenic Factor- Urea to Ground Water
      • Green revolution did not bring benefits for Pulses, Millets and oil seeds with Rice and wheat occupy major areas these crops were push to dry unirrigated land. This is one of the reasons for malnutrition problem in India.
        • Pulses were imported for 8000 crores.
        • The
        • Pulses land was shifted to Rice & Wheat, led to monoculture practice
        • It leads to malnutrition due to lack of nutrients.
        • Ragi gave calcium which was shifted to Sugarcane  
      • The areas which were by passed during GR are still most under developed with problems of poverty, frequent crop failures, Low productivity and farmer’s suicide. With shrinking agriculture land increasing population and land which is fast losing its fertility there is a need for 2nd Green revolution. It has to be a Rainbow Revolution without any undue importance give to any particular region or crop. It has to focus on Agriculture sustainability In short we need an evergreen revolution.
        • Lack of flow of development as in trickle down method.
        • Polarization and back wash.
        • One area was developed at the cost of second area. One areas minerals are exploited and other area was developed. Ex. Baluchisathan
        • Training not given to farmers to use water.

Population is increasing, land decreased, fertility of land decreases.

  • Trickle down approach
  • Spread to other people

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