The Arya Samaj emerged as a reaction against western cultural influences. It established in 1875 at Bombay by Dayanand Saraswati. He was originally borned as Mool Shanker in a Brahmin Family in Gujrat. In 1875, He published Satyarth Parkash and later in 1881, he wrote a pamphlet in Gaukarnanidhi. The Arya Samaj believed infallibility of Vedas and considered Vedas as a reservoir of Knowledge. The Arya Samaj, though a revivalist ideal worship, polygamy, Cast System but accepted the vision of society based on merit. The Greatest Contribution of Arya Samaj is in the field of education. It supported education for man and woman. But opposed co-education. The progressive section of Arya Samaj established a chain of school known as Dayanand-Anglo Vedic School. The conservatives are not happy with this and established Gurukul at Haridwar.
Dayanand died in 1883, by this time, Arya Samaj had come very popular and aggressive movement. It started attacking on Muslim, Launched Shuddi Movement in 1890’s started organizing cow protection societies. These activities of Arya Samaj created a rift between Hindus and Muslims and contributed to the emergence of communal-ism in later years.
Ramkrishan & Vivekanand
Ramkishan Paramhamsa was a Great Hindu saint who believed in Renunciation, meditation and devotion to god for religious salvage. It was his follower Vivekananda, who popularized the message of his Guru and the messages was “Essential oneness of all the Religions”. He travelled to different part of Indian and Criticize Indian for neglecting the knowledge of Western world which had led to Indian society become stagnant. He appealed to the Indians to inculcate the spirit of equality and rationalism. He defended polytheism and image worship He popularized served to Making is service to God. In 1893, He went to Chicago, for a conference, called as world conference of Religion after his return, he founded Ram Kishan mission in 1897 to keep the Indian from the Materialist influence of the west. The mission open schools, orphanages and provided free medicines to the Poor.
It was launched by Abdul Wahad in Saudi Arabia. In india, it was initiated by Shah Walivillah (1702-92). His ideas were further propagated by Shah Abdul Ajij and Saiyad Ahmad Barelavi. However, they gave a political colour to his ideas, they wanted to convert India to Darul-Hard (Land of idfiels i.e. Kafir) to Darul Islam (Land of Islam). Initially the movement was against the sikh people in Punjab but later it turned against the British. It was a revivalist movement.
In 1869, he went to London and it was here that the idea of establishing a modern education institution came to his mind. After this return, He founded Mohamedan Anglo Oriental College (MAO) in 1875 at Aligarh.
It was also a revivalist movement that the orthodox Ulemans Md Qasim, Nantavi & Rashid Ahmad Gangohi established Deoband School in 1866 at Saharanpur, (UP). Contrary to Aligarh School Deoband School did not teach its students for worldly affairs (Education of Job) rather is emphasized on moral and religious instructions. Despite being a revivalist movement it is nationalist in orientation and appreciated the formation of congress. In 1988, it issued a religious decree(fatwa) against Saiyid Ahmad Khan organization, like Mohammad Anglo Orientation Association and United Patriotic Association.